BPSC UPSC Main’s History material available   Leave a comment

BPSC material initiative:

I am starting a blogroll for History material in English and Hindi for BPSC mains and other competitive exam indicate you choice of subject and I will try to aggregate maximum material and make it available here.

Language of learning:

Please indicate your choice of subject and language with email id or enroll to the either of the blogs to get material frequently.

Presently, i sticking with English, however, any one who is interested in Hindi, please indicate i can upload Hindi material as well.


This initiative is not intended to breach any copy-writes. I will stick to the sources which free to circulate and myown notes taken from the different books and study material available also it will be very brief and to be point, which you can explain in way of writing.

I will be using minimum three reference source to publish the material online. however, i am planning to keep it open for all to contribute and seek amendment. In order to survive online we need all the readers to contribute.

Let me start with Kick off with English and


Source 1: iasgeneralstudies

QS: Write a note on the influence of geography on Indian history and culture? or

Explain, how the India geographical feature impact the ancient history. or

the following is brief summary, which you may elaborate further.


It is generally said that history has two eyes :

  1. chronology and
  2.  geography.

In other words time and space are significant factors in determining the historical process. In particular, a country’s geography largely determines its historical events. The history of India is also influenced by its geography.Hence, the study of Indian geographical features contributes to the better understanding of its history.

The Indian subcontinent is a well-defined geographical unit.

It may be divided into three major regions:

  1. the Himalayan Mountains,
  2. the Indo-Gangetic Plains and
  3.  the Southern Peninsula .

There are five countries in the subcontinent –

  1. India,
  2. Pakistan,
  3. Bangladesh,
  4. Nepal and
  5. Bhutan.

India is the largest among them and it comprises twenty-eight states and six Union Territories. According to the 2001 Census, the population of India is over one hundred crores.

The Himalayan Mountains:

The Himalayan Mountains are situated on the north of India. Starting from the Pamir in the extreme northwest of India, the mighty Himalayan range extends towards northeast. It has a length of nearly 2560 kilometres with an average breadth of240 to 320 kilometres.

The highest peak of the Himalayas is known as Mount Everest with its height being 8869 metres. It acts as a natural wall and protects the country against the cold arctic winds blowing from Siberia through Central Asia. This keeps the climate of northern India fairly warm throughout the year. The Himalayan region is mostly inhospitable in winter and generally covered with snow.

It was considered for a long time that the Himalayas stood as a natural barrier to protect India against invasions. But, the passes in the northwest mountains such as the Khyber, Bolan, Kurram and Gomal provided easy routes between India and Central Asia. These passes are situated in the Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges .

From prehistoric times, there was a continuous flow of traffic through these passes. Many people came to India through these passes as invaders and immigrants. The Indo-Aryans, the Indo-Greeks, Parthians, Sakas, Kushanas, Hunas and Turks entered India through these passes. The Swat valley in this region formed another important route. Alexander of Macedon came to India  through this route. Apart from invading armies, missionaries and merchants came to India using these routes. Therefore, these passes in the northwest mountains had facilitated trade as well as cultural contacts between India and the Central Asia.

 In the north of Kashmir is Karakoram Range. The second highest peak in the worldMount Godwin Austen is situated here. This part of the Himalayas and its passes are high and snow-covered in the winter. The Karakoram highway viaGilgit is connected to Central Asia but there was little communication through this route.

The valley of Kashmir is surrounded by high mountains. However, it could be reached through several passes. The Kashmir valley remains unique for its tradition and culture. Nepal is also a small valley under the foot of the Himalayas and it is accessible from Gangetic plains through a number of passes.

In the east, the Himalayas extend up to Assam. The important mountains in this region are Pat Koi, Nagai and Lushairanges . These hills are covered with thick forests due to heavy rains and mostly remain inhospitable. The mountains of northeast India is difficult to cross and many parts of this region had remained in relative isolation.


Posted जून 12, 2011 by Visionary in बिना श्रेणी

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